Countering Prejudice and Religious Intolerance of Indonesian Students towards Fellow Muslims of Different Madhhab


  • Fahrudin
  • Munawar Rahmat
  • Endis Firdaus
  • Muhamad Parhan


Pros and cons of a Shiite minority in Indonesia adorn social media, scientific discussions, sermons in mosques, to religious lectures at universities. The Government and the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) have never banned Shiites. Nahdhatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah, Indonesia's largest Islamic mass organization, see Shia as Sunni. But there are some Ulema MUI, NU, and Muhammadiyah who mis-lead it. Some local governments have banned Shiite religious activities. The anti-Shia group was inclined to condemn, mislead, disperse the teaching, burn down houses of worship, and even expel the Shiites. They enter the university campus and influence students. As a result, many students hate Shiites and consider them infidels. The study results were more than half of the students were intolerant of religion and minority Madhhabs. Most religious lecturers do not care about student exclusivism. The inclusive lecturers feel uneasy and look for teaching models that can change this wrong mindset.

Contribution: This article contributes to increasing religious moderation and warding off student religious prejudice against fellow Muslims from different schools of thought. The teaching model of the Sunni-Shia madhhab typology has proven to be effective in changing students' negative preconceptions against Shia. Before the lecture, students had a bad feeling that the teachings of the Imam, the position of faith and disbelief of the companions of the Prophet, the pillars of faith, and the pillars of Shia Islam deviated from Islam because they did not have evidence from the Koran and Hadith. But after college (six lectures), they changed completely.