The Impact of Cultural Customization and Locational Congruity on Attitude toward Location-Based Advertising


  • Poh Kiong Tee
  • Lim Kim Yew
  • Toong Hai Sam
  • Tan Owee Kowang
  • Frolova Aleksandra
  • Asokan Vasudevan
  • Xue Ruiteng


Online Location-Based Advertising (LBA) is rapidly growing. Due to the widespread use of location-based advertising, it is necessary to determine the elements that impact attitudes about online LBA. The present study investigates the effects of cultural customization and locational congruity on attitudes towards online location-based advertising under settings of high and low product engagement. The survey was performed using convenience sampling among 212 Millennials (Generation Y) in Malaysia's Klang Valley. To examine their opinion about online LBA, two sets of questionnaires containing high-involved and low-involved product advertisements were provided. SPSS v25 was used to analyse the data collected. The study found that cultural customization and locational congruity have significant and beneficial influence on attitudes about online location-based advertising for both high-involved and low-involved products. It has been revealed that cultural customization has a higher influence on attitude toward online LBA under low involvement settings, but locational congruity has a higher impact on attitude toward online location-based advertising under low involvement situations.