Diagnosis of mutations in the ALS and ACCase genes in Loluim weed
During the winter agricultural season 2021-2022, a field experiment was conducted in one of the fields located in the Al-Hindiyah District of the Holy Karbala Governorate. The purpose of the experiment was to study potential mutations that could make plants resistant to the action of certain herbicides belonging to the genus Lolium. The experiment was designed according to the randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with split plots arrangement and three replications, as the main plots included four different types of herbicides, namely Chevalier, Pallas, Tobik, and Axial, along with a comparison treatment (spraying with water only), while the sub plts included planting Lolium bush seeds. The holy province of Karbala, the province of Babylon, and the province of Wasit are the three provinces that make up this grouping in the Iraqi country of Iraq. The results revealed mutations in the ALS gene in the mRNA sequences of plants from Karbala, Wasit, and Babylon that are resistant to the pesticides Chevalier and Pallas, by substituting nitrogenous bases with other bases in codons 195 and 200 of AGC and AGT, which encode for the amino acid Ser to ACC, and GGT, which encodes for Thr and Gly. Iraqi weed mutations matched global mutations. Two missense mutations were found in codons 175 and 266 of the succession of Wasit governorate plants, by substituting codons GTC and CGC, which encode for Val and Arg, by codons GGC and TGC, which encode for Gly and Cys. The results of this gene in the weed (Lolium temulentum) were identical to the weed Lolium rigidum, except for one silent mutation at codon number 150 GCT that encodes for the amino acid Ala. This codon was changed to GCC in the weed of Wasit province. The results revealed a number of mutations resistant to the action of the two pesticides, Tobic and Axial, in the ACCase gene in the mRNA sequences of the plants of the Holy Karbala, Wasit and Babel governorates. These mutations are similar to the mutation in the resistant plants recorded globally, by substitution of nitrogenous bases with others in codons 25, 29, 33, 167, and 209 from CGA, GAA, AAT, TTG, and ACA, These mutations in the Iraqi weed coincided with mutations recorded globally, and the results showed that there is a missense mutation in codon 161 of the sequence of Wasit and Karbala pesticide-resistant plants, by substituting two nitrogenous bases from AAG, which encodes Lys, to AGA, which encodes Arg. In Karbala and Wasit, pesticide-resistant plants had two frame shift mutations.