30 Years Of Law 70 Of 1993 On Black Communities: Challenges And Perspectives Of Ethno-Education And The Chair Of Afro-Colombian Studies
The 1991 Political Constitution of Colombia recognized for the first time in the country's republican history that its population is multicultural and multiethnic. In this context, a compendium of norms was developed that guaranteed differential collective rights to the different ethnic groups settled in the territory. Particularly for the Afro-Colombian, Palenquera and Raizal population, Law 70 of 1993 was issued as the first legislation establishing rights for these communities. Among the issues, it contemplates are ethno-education and the Chair of Afro-Colombian Studies as pedagogical instruments that guarantee, on the one hand, the strengthening of African ancestral knowledge in the ethnic territories; and, on the other hand, the visibility before the entire nation from the educational system of the contributions of the black communities in the construction of the nation in different spheres. The objective of this article is to present a review of the different perspectives of analysis regarding the materialization of the rights derived from Law 70 of 1993 in terms of Ethno-education and Afro-Colombian Studies Chair throughout the 30 years of its validity. For this purpose, documentary research was carried out in which articles of reflection, review and research results published in scientific journals emphasizing the categories of Ethno-education, Afro-Colombian Studies Chair and Law 70 of 1993 were investigated. After the analysis, it was possible to conclude that although the new norms containing collective rights for black communities changed the paradigm of institutional conception towards these populations, even the application and effectiveness of these guarantees are precarious, and a new form of racism is configured based on the inapplicability of the norms containing the nucleus of collective rights.