Rural schools: gaps in education that intensify in a pandemic (COVID -19) and proposals for improvement in Metropolitan Lima, Peru


  • Helen Kaarol Vila Sánchez
  • Javier Jesús Oliva Gamarra
  • Encarnación Maria Torres Solís
  • Lizbet Katia Molina Molina Lahuana
  • Auroni Cenepo Gutierrez


This article shows the results of a study that seeks to know the state of Rural Public Educational Institutions in Metropolitan Lima. The study was developed according to the Constructivist paradigm, taking the qualitative approach of phenomenological design. The sample consisted of eight rural school principals with a Director's Resolution assigning their functions, in which a survey technique was applied through a questionnaire and an interview, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. This study meets the criteria of auditability, credibility, data confirmability and transferability, which determines the scientificity of this article. It addresses rural basic education, the gaps before and during the pandemic, and the factors that accentuate school dropout. The results determine that the rural populations in Metropolitan Lima do not meet the standards of infrastructure in the IIEE, and access to services, especially considering the modification of their primary activities and the inequalities of access to education, as well as the distancing of access to better opportunities in the context of the COVID -19 context. This way, the selected sample details the high levels of unsatisfied basic needs. MINEDU and other private entities in the country have been involved with strategies and programs that seek to improve learning and the development of higher education and reduce rural school dropout rates. However, the national crisis caused by COVID-19 has paralyzed many support measures and the level of access of these populations to the improvement of services, from the various government agencies, mainly at the local level; municipal management shows a lack of initiative in prioritizing better management of services. A crucial factor is the level of education of the rural population, which becomes a challenge to lower the poverty line; it is an effective priority to ensure essential services, guarantee economic opportunities and education coverage. It is concluded that there is a particular distance between the urban and the rural areas within the same territory of Metropolitan Lima.