ESL Leaners’ Perceptions of the Use of Product Writing Approach: A Mixed-Methods Study


  • Sayyed Rashid Ali Shah
  • Ubaid Ullah Ubaid
  • Dr Irfan Bashir
  • Abdul Malik


The English as a second language (ESL) learners’ ability to write a well-structured and cohesive piece of work is the ultimate goal of every English language pedagogy across the globe. To help teachers achieve the learning outcomes, the linguists and researchers have introduced several writing approaches. Among them, the product writing approach is the oldest and most commonly used method to teach writing skills in ESL contexts. However, researchers mainly overlooked to investigate the learners’ perceptions of the use of the product writing approach in ESL contexts. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the ESL learners’ perceptions of the use of the product writing approach and identify factors that impact the ESL learners’ writing in the Pakistani ESL context. It employs a mixed-method approach by combining both quantitative and qualitative research designs. The quantitative data was collected from 200 ESL intermediate level (Grade- 12) learners enrolled in five different colleges. As part of the qualitative data, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five ESL learners. The findings from both quantitative and qualitative data reveal that the ESL learners prefer to write on a given topic after developing familiarity with the topic through a model text. Moreover, they prefer to show their written tasks to their teacher for feedback rather than to their friends. The qualitative data indicates some additional factors, such as lack of motivation, L1 interference, lack of writing practice, memorisation, weakness in spelling, and lack of vocabulary that influence the learners’ writing practice in the Pakistani ESL context.