Multiculturalism in Paradise: Emerging Ethnicity, Religion, Belief and Tourism in Bali


  • I Gusti Ngurah Jayanti
  • I Wayan Rupa
  • I Made Satyananda
  • I Wayan Sudarma
  • I Made Suarsana
  • I Wayan Ardika
  • I Nengah Subadra


This study is aimed at understanding multicultural practises in worshipping sites and investigating the establishments of social cohesion and inter-ethnic connectivity in fostering religious harmony in Bali. It adopted a qualitative method and used primary data collected through observation, interviews, documentation, and secondary data obtained from literature studies. The data were analysed thematically according to the purposes of the research. This research finds multicultural worship practises have been implemented since the 9th century, which could be seen in the traditions and symbols used in Hindu worship sites in Bali. The worshipping practises involving people of different ethnicities and religions in the worshipping sites remain existed and they support each other and live a peaceful and harmonious life in Bali. The value of multiculturalism introduced by the ancestors is currently practised and serves as a moral foundation for fostering religious harmony and supporting the development of cultural tourism in Bali. This openness to diversity has allowed Bali to become a hub for global tourists seeking spiritual experiences and cultural exchange wherein they can observe and participate in Balinese rituals, contributing to the preservation of their unique cultural heritage.